Although the different techniques of assisted reproduction allow us to solve many problems of sterility, in some women we need to resort to egg donation:
The medical treatment to receive donated eggs is simple and consists only of the preparation of the endometrium prior to the transfer of the embryos. The control of the endometrial development is done by ultrasound scan and, in some cases, by means of hormonal determinations.
In Spain the donation of ovules and the protocols for studies performed to egg donors are regulated by law. The ultimate goal is to obtain a healthy and committed donor that does not suffer from genetic, hereditary or infectious diseases that can be transmitted to offspring.
The assignment of donors to recipients depends mainly on physical characteristics and blood group compatibility.
We can select the donor, with greater biological security from the genetic point of view, through the genetic compatibility test or genetic matching and detect mutations of genes that cause recessive hereditary diseases. These are rare diseases that occur when you have two mutated copies of the gene related to the disease. Being a carrier of a recessive disease mutation has no clinical implications. For that reasonwe perform the test sequentially (first we study the male and, if the result is positive, the donor is studied). If both are carriers of different mutations of recessive diseases, the fetus will not be affected.
The technique used is massive sequencing or NGS because it allows us to study the entire coding sequence of the gene and not only the most common mutations related to the disease, which is what array technologies studies do. The study by massive sequencing increases the diagnostic efficiency of these tests.